Therefore, critics argue that copyright in scientific research is largely ineffective in its proposed use, but that it has also been wrongly acquired in many cases, and that in practice it is contrary to its fundamental purpose of protecting authors and other scientific research. Plan S requires authors and their respective institutions to retain copyrights to articles without transferring them to publishers; also supported by OA2020. [Note 4] The researchers found no evidence of the need for a transfer of copyright for publication or, in all cases, where a publishing house exercised copyright in the best interests of the authors. Although one of the publishers` arguments in favour of copyright transfer is that they allow them to defend authors against copyright infringement, [Note 5] Publishers can assume this responsibility even if copyright remains in the hands of the author, as is the policy of the Royal Society. [Note 6] Copyright transfer agreements have become commonplace in publishing under the Copyright Act of 1976 in the United States and similar laws in other countries in the publishing sector, redefining copyright from the date of birth (instead of publication) of a work.  This required publishers to acquire copyright from the author to sell or access the works, and written statements signed by the rights holder were necessary for the transfer of copyright to be considered valid.   “Acquired Property.” Assets are also excluded before the migration date for a customer contract, customer contract and other assets to be transferred. (e) any non-payment of a representative of an agent contract under a customer contract for the period prior to the transfer date of that customer contract by the seller to the buyer under this contract. At the time of the agreement, the seller and the Primus Telecommunications Group, Incorporated, entered into a guarantee agreement under which the Primus Telecommunications Group, Incorporated, guaranteed the buyer`s obligations.
In 2017, the 9th Court of Appeals of Johnson v. Storix confirmed a transfer of copyright without a written assignment.  In this case, the author sold the Anthony Johnson software as an individual contractor and built his business in 2003 under the title Storix, Inc. The court upheld a jury decision that Johnson transferred the copyright to the company on the basis of an annual report he wrote and signed that he had transferred “all the assets” of his individual company.